Free thermosphere density and wind data download from the CHAMP, GRACE, GRACE-FO, GOCE, and Swarm missions.
Update on November 27, 2023: Uploaded POD-derived Swarm density data (version 01) covering October 2023.
Update on March 15, 2023: We distribute the density and crosswind data under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license. Satellite geometry, aerodynamic, and radiation pressure models are shared under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) license.
We advise accessing our anonymous FTP server (ftp://thermosphere.tudelft.nl) using an FTP client.
If you use the data on this webpage, please cite our publications.
Accelerometer-derived density data
C. Siemes, C. Borries, S. Bruinsma, I. Fernandez-Gomez, N. Hładczuk, J. van den IJssel, T. Kodikara, K. Vielberg, P. Visser (2023) New Thermosphere Neutral Mass Density and Crosswind Datasets from CHAMP, GRACE, and GRACE-FO. Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate. https://doi.org/10.1051/swsc/2023014
G. March, J. van den IJssel, C. Siemes, P. Visser, E. Doornbos, M. Pilinski (2021) Gas-surface interactions modelling influence on satellite aerodynamics and thermosphere density. Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate, 11: 54. https://doi.org/10.1051/swsc/2021035
C. Siemes, J. de Teixeira da Encarnação, E. N. Doornbos, J. van den IJssel, J. Kraus, R. Pereštý, L. Grunwaldt, G. Apelbaum, J. Flury and P. E. Holmdahl Olsen (2016) Swarm accelerometer data processing from raw accelerations to thermospheric neutral densities. Earth, Planets and Space, 68: 92. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-016-0474-5
E. N. Doornbos (2012) Thermosphere density and wind determination from satellite dynamics. Dissertation, Springer Nature, Switzerland. ISBN 978-3-642-25129-0 (free PDF version)
Satellite geometry and aerodynamic models
G. March, E. N. Doornbos and P. N. M. A. Visser (2019) High-fidelity geometry models for improving the consistency of CHAMP, GRACE, GOCE and Swarm thermospheric density data sets. Advances in Space Research 63: 213–238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2018.07.009
G. March, E. N. Doornbos and P. N. M. A. Visser (2019) CHAMP and GOCE thermospheric wind characterization with improved gas-surface interactions modelling. Advances in Space Research 64: 1225–1242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2019.06.023
GNSS-derived density data
J. van den IJssel, E. Doornbos, E. Iorfida, G. March, C. Siemes, O. Montenbruck (2020) Thermosphere densities derived from Swarm GPS observations. Advances in Space Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2020.01.004
P. Visser and J. van den IJssel J (2016) Orbit determination and estimation of non-gravitational accelerations for the GOCE reentry phase. Advances in Space Research 58: 1840–1853. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2016.07.013
The original data was obtained from the following sources
CHAMP data: GFZ's Information System and Data Center
GOCE and Swarm data: ESA's Earth Online webpage
GRACE and GRACE-FO data: NASA's Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC)
Accelerometer, density and wind data processing
Wind data processing
Geometry and aerodynamic modelling
Density data processing
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