Thermosphere data

Free download of our thermosphere density and wind data, satellite geometry and aerodynamic models for the CHAMP, GRACE, GOCE and Swarm missions. Please cite our references when you use our data or models.

Update on September 27, 2021: Uploaded POD-derived Swarm density data covering August 2021.
Update on August 27, 2021: Uploaded POD-derived Swarm density data covering July 2021.


If you use our geometry models, please cite:

G. March, E. N. Doornbos and P. N. M. A. Visser (2019) High-fidelity geometry models for improving the consistency of CHAMP, GRACE, GOCE and Swarm thermospheric density data sets. Advances in Space Research 63: 213–238.

If you use our aerodynamic models, please cite:

G. March, E. N. Doornbos and P. N. M. A. Visser (2019) CHAMP and GOCE thermospheric wind characterization with improved gas-surface interactions modelling. Advances in Space Research 64: 1225–1242.

If you use our orbit-derived density data, please cite:

J. van den IJssel, E. Doornbos, E. Iorfida, G. March, C. Siemes, O. Montenbruck (2020) Thermosphere densities derived from Swarm GPS observations. Advances in Space Research.

P. Visser and J. van den IJssel J (2016) Orbit determination and estimation of non-gravitational accelerations for the GOCE reentry phase. Advances in Space Research 58: 1840–1853.

If you use our Swarm accelerometer-derived density data, please cite:

C. Siemes, J. de Teixeira da Encarnação, E. N. Doornbos, J. van den IJssel, J. Kraus, R. Pereštý, L. Grunwaldt, G. Apelbaum, J. Flury and P. E. Holmdahl Olsen (2016) Swarm accelerometer data processing from raw accelerations to thermospheric neutral densities. Earth, Planets and Space, 68: 92.

For all other data, please cite:

E. N. Doornbos (2012) Thermosphere density and wind determination from satellite dynamics. Dissertation, Springer Nature, Switzerland. ISBN 978-3-642-25129-0 (free PDF version)

The original data was obtained from the following sources:

CHAMP data: GFZ's Information System and Data Center
GOCE and Swarm data: ESA's Earth Online webpage
GRACE data: NASA's Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC)

Active team members

Christian Siemes

Accelerometer and density data processing

Jose van den IJssel

GNSS data processing

Pieter Visser

GNSS data processing

Natalia Hładczuk

Aerodynamic and radiation pressure modelling

External collaborators

Eelco Doornbos

Accelerometer, density and wind data processing

Günther March

Geometry and aerodynamic modelling

Elisabetta Iorfida

Density data processing

Former team members

Tim Visser

Wind data processing

Funding sources

The generation of our models and data was supported by


TU Delft
Kluyverweg 1
2629 HS Delft
The Netherlands


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