Thermosphere data

Free thermosphere density and wind data from the CHAMP, GRACE, GRACE-FO, GOCE, and Swarm missions.

Update on July 9, 2024: Uploaded POD-derived Swarm density data (version 01) covering May 2024.
Update on July 8, 2024: Uploaded accelerometer-derived GRACE C density and crosswind data (version 02c) covering February to May 2024.
Update on May 28, 2024: Uploaded POD-derived Swarm density data (version 01) covering April 2024.

The data can be accessed via our anonymous FTP server using an FTP client (e.g. FileZilla). Enter as the host and anonymous as the username.


If you use the data on this webpage, please cite our publications. 

Accelerometer-derived density data

N. Hładczuk, J. van den IJssel, T. Kodikara, K., C. Siemes, P. Visser (2023) GRACE-FO radiation pressure modelling for accurate density and crosswind retrieval. Advances in Space Research.

C. Siemes, C. Borries, S. Bruinsma, I. Fernandez-Gomez, N. Hładczuk, J. van den IJssel, T. Kodikara, K. Vielberg, P. Visser (2023) New Thermosphere Neutral Mass Density and Crosswind Datasets from CHAMP, GRACE, and GRACE-FO. Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate.

G. March, J. van den IJssel, C. Siemes, P. Visser, E. Doornbos, M. Pilinski (2021) Gas-surface interactions modelling influence on satellite aerodynamics and thermosphere density. Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate, 11: 54.

C. Siemes, J. de Teixeira da Encarnação, E. N. Doornbos, J. van den IJssel, J. Kraus, R. Pereštý, L. Grunwaldt, G. Apelbaum, J. Flury and P. E. Holmdahl Olsen (2016) Swarm accelerometer data processing from raw accelerations to thermospheric neutral densities. Earth, Planets and Space, 68: 92.

E. N. Doornbos (2012) Thermosphere density and wind determination from satellite dynamics. Dissertation, Springer Nature, Switzerland. ISBN 978-3-642-25129-0 (free PDF version)

Satellite geometry and aerodynamic models

G. March, E. N. Doornbos and P. N. M. A. Visser (2019) High-fidelity geometry models for improving the consistency of CHAMP, GRACE, GOCE and Swarm thermospheric density data sets. Advances in Space Research 63: 213–238.

G. March, E. N. Doornbos and P. N. M. A. Visser (2019) CHAMP and GOCE thermospheric wind characterization with improved gas-surface interactions modelling. Advances in Space Research 64: 1225–1242.

GNSS-derived density data

J. van den IJssel, E. Doornbos, E. Iorfida, G. March, C. Siemes, O. Montenbruck (2020) Thermosphere densities derived from Swarm GPS observations. Advances in Space Research.

P. Visser and J. van den IJssel J (2016) Orbit determination and estimation of non-gravitational accelerations for the GOCE reentry phase. Advances in Space Research 58: 1840–1853.

The original data was obtained from the following sources

CHAMP data: GFZ's Information System and Data Center
GOCE and Swarm data: ESA's Earth Online webpage
GRACE and GRACE-FO data: NASA's Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC)

Team members

Christian Siemes

Accelerometer and density data processing

Jose van den IJssel

GNSS data processing

Pieter Visser

GNSS data processing

Sabin Anton

Aerodynamic modelling

Natalia Hładczuk

Radiation pressure modelling

Former team members

Eelco Doornbos

Accelerometer, density and wind data processing

Tim Visser

Wind data processing

Günther March

Geometry and aerodynamic modelling

Elisabetta Iorfida

Density data processing

Funding sources

The generation of our models and data was supported by


TU Delft
Kluyverweg 1
2629 HS Delft
The Netherlands


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